words is used to retrieve a word from a stored dictionary using a semantic index for further processing of this word at the level of organs of speech. The semantic index of words can also be partially used in the process of spontaneous writing. Violations of this index, while maintaining the phonological index, can lead to the development of violations of word repetition, reading and writing.

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Diagnosing spoken language comprehension usually includes questions about the patient's family, work, and health status. However, abnormal speech comprehension disorders can be detected when a patient with Broca's aphasia tries to understand the contents of a telephone conversation, radio broadcast, or other people's conversations.

Speech comprehension disorders. Understanding spoken language. Comprehension of conventional conversation on a familiar topic is usually adequate in patients with moderate and even severe Broca's aphasia, but is impaired in patients with Wernicke's aphasia. In early studies, Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia were referred to as motor and sensory aphasia, respectively.

Impaired understanding of words. Alienation of the meaning of the word. semantic violations.

The patient has difficulty in determining the meaning of the word, although its phonological and, above all, acoustic recognition may be preserved. The patient is able to repeat the request, demonstrating the preservation of phonological and phoneticimage of a word, but may have difficulty pointing to the correct object on command. This can be called the alienation of the meaning of words (Luriya, 1962; Tonkonogiy, 1973).