Sentences are considered the result of a non-linguistic disorder of certain actions associated with the coordination of movements of the organs of speech in time, and not with the articulatory performance of phonetic properties (Blumstein, 1995).


Stuttering, dysprosodic speech is one of the most prominent features of Broca's aphasia. It is characterized by a distortion of the rhythmic-melodic structure of speech. Either the free flow of speech or its melodic structure is disturbed; speech is characterized by difficulty, tension, long pauses, stops between words or in the middle of a word, when the patient is trying hard to pick up the next word in a sentence or start a new sentence. The intonation changes abruptly from low to high and back to low, so that the normal melodic pitch of the transition from low to high is distorted. Oral apraxia is commonly seen in almost all patients with Broca's aphasia and may exacerbate articulation disorders.

Repetition, reading and writing disorders. Phonological disturbances. The phonetic description of a word based on its acoustic properties is translated into a modally non-specific phonological description based on a sequence of phonemes. The description of a particular phoneme in this sequence differs from the phonetic description because it depends on the previous and next phoneme in the sequence. It can also be based on the combination of simpler properties of certain phonemes in a sequence into more complex new properties that describe the whole word, especially for high-frequency words that are used in the processing of conventional lexical information.

In most patients with Wernicke's aphasia, oral praxis is preserved.

Repetition disorders.

Reading and writing disorders. These disorders represent another symptom of Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia, which confirms the role of modally non-specific disorders at the phonological level in patients. It should be emphasized that when repeating words, reading and writing from dictation, information can be processed at the semantic level, bypassing the phonological level. In this case, the visual or auditory pattern of the whole.